The visual language of the diagram, as demonstrated by the some of the examples of graphic design published in Kepess text, is not a transparent filter for self-evident meaning, but rather a transforming, metaphoric code. The figure/ground relation, which describes the qualitative differences contained in the percept, is a phenomenal rather than a geometric fact, an aspect of the image as it is experienced. (Moholy, Vision in Motion, 121) Moholy connected the tracks of the

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diagram with the drawn line of writing, but he saw such tracks as fundamentally different from script because of the objective, necessary relationship between the sign and its referent in the natural world. A similar Dictionary of the photogram appears later in the bookthese dictionaries suggest the eventual compilation of an infinite reference book of visual signs, a complete swatchbook of reality. His main innovation is to use principles from Gestalt psychology to expand on and verify the notion of an autonomous faculty of visual communication. The form, the rendering, is constructed out of the optical and associative relationships: into a visual, associative, conceptual, synthetic continuity: into the typophoto as an unambiguous rendering in an optically valid form. A population curve, for example, is a shape produced by the information it describes, not a symbolic or illusionistic image: it is an index of the data it represents. Language of Vision, like the other textbooks of design discussed in this paper, asserts abstract visual form as the basis of a new writing that would wash verbal expression of its ambiguities. Moholy-Nagy saw photography as a new kind of writing: The illiterate of the future will be the person ignorant of the use of the camera as well as the pen.

5 On one page in the Pedagogical Sketchbook, the copy flows between two opposing columns: the meaning of the linear text is reinforced by its spatial position. 4 This assignment was perhaps influenced by an earlier exercise from Ittens Basic Course, in which a linear network is superposed over reproductions of Old Masters paintings. 14 recalls Hannes Meyers diagram of functions: the plan of a house is superposed with photographs of family life, and the images are connected with lines suggestive of machinery belts. (Moholy, Vision in Motion, 208) Moholy valued photography as an expansion of natural sighta technique for penetrating opaque bodies, recording the passage of time, or layering multiple images onto a single, unified surface. The theorists of visual language aimed to locate a universal code that communicates through the mechanics of the eye and brain, bypassing the contingencies of verbal language and cultural context. These schematic, linear translations constitute a kind of writing which renders its referent transparent. This project seemed to correspond with goals publicized by the German Bauhaus, and the association asked Moholy-Nagy to participate.


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In Kepess demonstration of the principle of similarity, a Mondrian composition is graphically treated as the final term in a series of scientific drawings: the painting is reproduced the same size as the diagrams, as a high-contrast image rather than a half-tone. He wrote in 1926: imagine a space filled with a soft, pliable substance in which the figures of the sequences of the dancers movements were to harden as a negative form Aids such as poles (the horizontal balancing pole) or stilts (vertical elements) are capable. Moholy assigned social as well as aesthetic value to the molded object, seeing it as an agent for eliminating the division of labor and bringing cheap goods to a mass public. The poles and stilts, painted white against a darkened stage and costume, automatically record the dancers movements, substituting his body with a graphic system. Despite this final synthesis, however, abstraction remains the guiding force of Kepess theory, occupying the first and most rigorous chapter of his booksimilarly, the isolated study of abstract form occupies the full first year of most college-level art school training today. The branch of sign that would have been of greatest interest to Moholy-Nagy and Kepes, and also to Kandinsky and Klee, was the index. The concept of figure operates in two ways in Kepess text. Kepess metaphor of visual language, which had its precedent in the textbooks of Kandinsky and Klee, became the basis of his own textbook, Language of Vision, written between 19, published in 1944. The tactile chart, an exercise which probably originated from Ittens Basic Course, is an assemblage of physical objects having different textures. Whereas a traditional industrial product is bolted together out of pieces, a stamped form takes its shape from a negative. Similarly, the plane is the product of a moving line which closes in on itself (Kandinsky, 81). Klees Pedagogical Sketchbook and Kandinskys Point and Line to Plane use diagrams to picture relationships between the elements of design; Klees figures in particular exploit the ability of the diagram to express spatial and temporal relations simultaneously. In its life as a period, the point must remain in silence, because it marks a stop in the flow of reading. The theories of graphic communication presented by Kandinsky and Klee are further elaborated by the typographic design of their texts. The point first appears in Kandiskys story as a punctuation mark. They aimed to construct, as Koffka wrote, as naive and full a description of direct experience as possible (Pastore, 271-2). The Basic Course top site de rencontre gratuit asse aimed to isolate this language of form from the context of linguistic, culturally acquired knowledge. These apparently artsy-crafty objects were preparations for designing the molded plastic handles of useful objectsthey were exercises for learning the contemporary industrial vocabulary of streamlining.


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Moholy noted numerous other artistic, technological, and natural diagrams throughout Vision in Motion, including photographs of fireworks, industrial time and motion studies, tire tracks in the snow, the pattern made by peeling paint, the ridges inscribed by waves on a beach, and the text left. The book also contains figures which are neither overtly didactic nor aestheticsmall, high-contrast compositions, often grouped in series, with no explicit message. Gyorgy Kepes, however, recognized the usefulness of the new psychology, and he directly incorporated it in his Language of Vision. They retained the concept of the Basic Course, a first-year program which taught formal principles believed to underly and unite all the specialized disciplines of art and design. The language of vision, the Basic course, conceived to prepare students for diverse practical disciplines by teaching them general formal concepts, was not part of Walter Gropiuss original program for the Bauhaus, but was established in 1920 in response to the inexperience and lack. As in a photograph, a potential infinity of prints can be cast from a single negative, and the uniform surface of the object is unbroken by syntactical connectors.

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Raconte de sénégalaise boulogne billancourt The writings of Lazlo Moholy-Nagy during the 1920s were more overtly hostile towards verbal writing. Information graphics are largely indexical signs (although they may also have symbolic and iconic components). In Painting Photography Film, published by the Bauhaus in 19, Moholy described the new medium of typophoto, or design which combines typography and photography: Photography is highly effective when used as typographical material. When used in a strictly didactic or expository context, an information graphic is a neutral record of given data. Moholy put faith in photography as an objective extension of the human eyeeven in its distortions, photography would massage femme erotique massage erotique des seins tell the truth.
Site de rencontre pour femme en manque albi Charts and graphs, for example, divide space according to an abstract, geometric gridcolumns and rows, or an x/y axis. He restated in this text his bias against verbal black rencontre montreal whitehorse language by comparing visual abstraction with verbal semantics: Like the semanticist, who strives for logical cleanliness, a clearing away of loosely trailing connotative associations in the verbal sphere, the abstract artist seeks to disengage the visual. Moholy-Nagy was put in charge of the program as a whole later in 1923 (Naylor 100).